Not sacred. The apocryphal scriptures tell the history of the Jewish people and their god or the words and deeds of Jesus Christ but are not recognized as canonical by those who consider themselves authorized to pass judgment on the matter. Dozens of apocryphal books exist, some of which are included in Biblical editions. The word originates from the Greek word for 'hidden'. More information
the Babylonian Captivity
Key episode in Jewish history. The Babylonian tyrant Nebudkadnezar II conquers the southern realm of Judea in 586 BC and destroys Jerusalem in the process, temple and all. The Jews are conveyed to Babylon. Some, such as Daniel obtain high positions at the royal court. After the Persians lead by Cyrus conquer the Great Babylon in 539, the Jews return slowly and rebuild the temple. Many important writings among which Biblical books originate from the Captivity period.
Derived from the Greek word 'biblia' (βιβλια), the plural of 'biblion', meaning: papyrus, paper, script, scroll, book, etc. Thus, the Bible is a collection of books.
book of hours
Book intended for laymen with a practical diary lay-out. Very popular in the Roman Catholic Church from the end of the 14th until some time into the 16th century. Some copies were richly illuminated and very expensive and could only be afforded by the rich.
Part of the canon, the books that make up the Holy Script.
Secondary canonical; relating or belonging to the less well-regarded or disputed collection of religious writings whose canonicity was only later recognized by the Catholic Church. The books that were recognized as canonical from the start are termed proto-canonical. Although the term is often used to refer to the same books deutero-canonical is not similar to apocryphal.
The Fall of Man, the breach of trust between the first humans and God. Adam and Eve broke God's law by eating the forbidden fruit. They were punished by expulsion from Paradise and their immortality was taken from them.
Strictly speaking, each of the four books of the New Testament in which the life and teachings of Jesus is described. Broadly speaking, these four books together.
A book which tells some of the stories from the Bible in broad lines without paying too much attention to church political correctness. Popular during the Middle Ages.
The forefathers of the Israeli people: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Sometimes Noah is included in the list, as is David.
From the Greek προ-φήτης meaning more or less 'someone who speaks on behalf of someone else', implying that the prophets from the Bible were mostly messengers. The books of prophecies tend to start with opening statements such as: The word of our LORD, which came to (name of prophet).
'Prophets' spelled with a capital usually indicates the books on and by the prophets of the Old Testament. A distinction is often made between the greater and the lesser prophets. The greater prophets are the Books of Isaiah, Jeremiah (the Lamentations included) Ezekiel and Daniel. The Books of Hosea up to and including Malachi comprise the lesser prophets.
In the Jewish Bible a miscellaneous category for books not belonging to either the Law or the Prophets: historical works, books of poetry and The Prophecies of Daniel.
The translation originating from between 250 and 100 BC of the Jewish Bible into the Greek. The word is an abbreviation of interpretatio septuaginta virorum or: translation by seventy men. This refers to the legend that 70 translators working independently from each other on the same text came to a synonymous result. The Septuagint comprises the deutero-canonical scriptures.
The Jewish Bible. The word is formed by the initial letters of the three parts: Torah, Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Scriptures).
Covenant between man and God or Jesus. The word means testimony. Because covenants are a central issue in the Jewish Bible, they were at one point being referred to as testamentum. These covenants are made through Noah (after the deluge) and Moses (during his journey to the promised land) and are repeated several times in the Old Testament. The covenant in the New Testament is not so much entered upon by equal partners - it is closer to a disposition of God's grace.
Also: Bible part.
Latin for 'accepted text': an indication of a Greek version of the New Testament comprised from several sources. The textus receptus originated in the course of the centuries and was revised several times. An important contribution was made by Erasmus, who published five editions between 1516 and 1535 based on extensive research of the sources available at the time. The textus receptus formed the basis for the New Testament of, among other versions, the King James Version and the Dutch Authorised Version (Statenvertaling). Not until the end of the 19th century was the text for Protestant translations ousted by one using more recently discovered manuscripts.
In Judaism the Torah are the 5 books allegedly written by Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. The word means 'law'. Ref: Pentateuch.
In a Biblical context: the transfiguration of Jesus, when he appeared as a divine figure. Seen as an announcement of his upcoming rising from the dead.
(Vulgata) Latin Bible translation from approx. AD 400, made by Church Father Jerome. The word 'vulgate' means 'general, common, of the people'. This translation was recognized as authoritive at the Council of Trent in 1546 although much had been revised since 400. This translation remained the authoritive version for the Catholic Church. A modernized edition was adopted in 1979.