Around 1612 Peter Paul Rubens made a series of portraits of the twelve apostles, including Paul but without Jude. Originally a painting with the 'Savior of the World' was part of the series, but it has been lost.
Rubens made the half-portraits life-size. Each apostle has an attribute, a symbol by which he can be identified. They were depicted as strong men, with impressive old faces. Rubens may have been influenced by Michelangelo, after his trip to Italy.
The Duke of Lerma was a powerful minister of the Spanish king Philip III. Rubens had portrayed him in 1603.
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